Diabetes

person testing blood sugar

Over 10 million people in North America have been diagnosed with diabetes and another 8 million don’t know they have it. This means that one out of every 20 Americans is afflicted with the disease. The total number of cases is expected to double in the next 20 years. In the early 1980’s, only about 2% of all new cases of Type-2 diabetes occurred in individuals aged 9 to 19 years. In 2003, some estimates suggest that 30-50% of all new cases will occur in that population.

Diabetes is a degenerative disease in which the body is unable to utilize sugar in the normal manner. In a non-diabetic person, the pancreas produces insulin (a hormone produced by islet cells) which is used to metabolize sugar from the bloodstream. The pancreas then delivers insulin to the cells that make up the various organs in our body, such as the heart, lungs and kidneys. Sugar provides energy to the cells and keeps these organs functional. In Type-1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes) the pancreas no longer makes insulin, and sugar stays in the blood instead of going to the cells where it is needed. Type-1 diabetics need a shot of insulin daily just to stay alive. In Type-2 diabetes, the pancreas is producing enough insulin, but the body does not use it effectively. This condition is known as “insulin resistance” and occurs when the cells do not respond to (resist) insulin’s attempt to enter with glucose. The pancreas responds by producing more and more insulin, but the cells don’t respond. High levels of glucose build up in the blood, leading to type-2 diabetes. Type-2 diabetics then become insulin-resistant because insulin is left unused, and the body thinks it isn’t needed and stops making it.

SYMPTOMS

 

  • Frequent urination because the body is trying to get rid of excess sugar in the blood. 
  • Intense thirst because the body needs to replace fluid lost through urination.
  • Increased hunger because the cells need nutrients.
  • Weight loss because without insulin, the body begins to starve.
  • Weight gain since the body begins to crave sweets and refined carbohydrates due to increased stress.

DIET

Perhaps no disease is linked to nutrition as much as Type-2 diabetes. Not only does nutrition play a role in the development of this disease, but it is also one of the disease’s most powerful treatments. Change to a diet that is lower in refined sugars, refined carbohydrates, and higher in plant proteins, quality fats (mono & polyunsaturated), and higher in fiber like psyllium, legumes (Guar Gum), pectin in fruits, oat bran, complex CHO, and yellow and green vegetables. Avoid saturated fats (red meat, dairy, cheese, pork) and trans-fats (margarine, vegetable oils, French fries, fried chicken, cookies, doughnuts, crackers).

Contrary to popular wisdom, sugar probably does not playing a major role in causing diabetes, according to a recent women’s health study done at Harvard. More likely causes are adrenal stress over time, heredity, obesity, and lack of exercise. Surely sugar should be curtailed, but according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines, sugar does not have to be completely shunned.  A high-flavonoid diet (containing 76-110mg of flavonoids from tomatoes, onions, and tea) results in a reduction of the oxidative damage of lymphocyte DNA and protects the body against free radical destruction. Here are some dietary tips for diabetic patients:

  • Eat smaller, more frequent meals (5 times a day) to minimize hypoglycemia (periods of low blood sugar).
  • Make dietary fiber the main carbohydrate in your diet. The American Diabetes Association recently revised its dietary guidelines to 20-35 grams of fiber daily (the U.S. average is 16 grams).
  • Theories abound that diabetes may be mainly caused by a stored excess of animal protein in different systems of the body and can create a problem with the cells’ insulin receptors. Eat less red meat and poultry, and more sea food and eggs for protein.
  • The current dietary trend away from fats and toward refined carbohydrates can be a fatal departure for individuals with Syndrome X or Type II diabetes. Good fats (omega 3 fatty acids) increase insulin sensitivity, are mood enhancers, regulate the production of prostaglandins (inflammatory mediators in the body), and slow the secretion of hydrochloric acid, prolonging the digestive process.  Limit consumption of trans fatty acids (a fatty acid that the body is not able to successfully metabolize) often appearing in cakes, cookies, and processed foods.
  • Magnesium-rich foods lower diabetes risk. According to Harvard Medical School, the benefits of magnesium- found in beans, green vegetables, spinach, whole grains, soy, halibut and nuts- found that people who consume more of these foods were the least likely to develop diabetes.
  • People who eat more unrefined (complex) carbohydrates have lower insulin levels, and therefore, a lower risk of heart disease. Elevated circulating insulin levels are thought to contribute to several heart disease risk factors including high blood pressure, obesity and high HDL.
  • Artificial sweeteners should be severely limited or avoided by diabetics. Stevia, an herb considered 100-300 times sweeter than sugar, is often recommended as an alternative to refined sugar, aspartame, or sucralose.  Diabetics should not be ingesting artificial sugar substitutes of any kind. A moderate amount of honey is permitted.
  • Cow’s milk and dairy products have been implicated as a possible trigger of autoimmune response, resulting in antibodies to and subsequent destruction of beta cells in genetically susceptible people (juvenile diabetes). Nicotinamide (niacinamide), a form of vitamin B3, has the capability in vitro of interrupting the pathogenic mechanism of IDDM and protecting the beta cells.
  • Drinking coffee may lower the risk of developing type-2 diabetes according to new research. A study of 126,000 men and women found that individuals who drank “full-test” coffee had a decreased risk of the disease, compared to those who drank less or no coffee at all.

RISKS

A hereditary component is evident in both type-1 & type-2 (insulin-dependent), but lifestyle and dietary considerations are much stronger in type-2 diabetes. Other chronic complications may be heart disease, ophthalmic problems, renal disease, kidney failure, strokes, and elevated cholesterol levels.

a mother kneeling to her child's level

C-reactive protein (CRP), a protein present I n many acute inflammatory conditions, is a significant risk factor in cardiovascular disease.  A growing body of evidence indicates that higher levels of CRP may also play a role in central abdominal obesity and the onset of type II diabetes.

Some mounting evidence that overuse of dairy products in children may lead to destruction of islet cells (juvenile diabetes) has been strengthened by a study from the University of Helsinki. Researchers confirmed a significantly higher immune response to bovine insulin in infants who were given cow’s milk. It is this response to insulin that may foreshadow type-1 diabetes.

There is some belief that testosterone may play a role in type-2 diabetes.  Testosterone, a hormone produced by men and women, has been used to treat severe cases of diabetes in the 1960s. Supplementing to normal testosterone levels appears to reduce HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, and appears to lower blood glucose and insulin levels, along with lower HbA1c (a reflection of blood glucose levels over the lat 2-3 months).

All artificial sugar substitutes (such as aspartame, sucralose and saccharine) should be avoided.

Minerals for diabetics are more important than vitamins, especially since all minerals have an effect on the others. The two most important ratios for diabetics are 1) Sodium/Potassium 2.5/1, which may negatively effect the amounts of copper, iron, and zinc in the body, and 2) Calcium/Magnesium balance.

Some tests that should be done on diabetics to reveal complications and problems include a blood test; toxic metals (copper can be high) analysis; body composition analysis; hormonal evaluation; percent of body fat; food allergy testing; glucose-insulin; urine/stool analysis; drug usage review; thyroid function, diet review, activity review, and metabolic rate.

STRESS AND DIABETES

Countless studies caution that stress (stressors on the adrenals glands) over time can lead to Syndrome X and diabetes, and if not controlled, to a shorter lifespan.  Anxious persons spur the sympathetic nervous system into heightened activity, and the adrenal gland leap to respond. The medulla, the inner portion of the adrenal gland, secretes epinephrine (or adrenaline) with is a neurotransmitter-hormone that has a significant influence over blood sugar levels.

During periods of continued emotional stress, the chief glucocorticoid hormone, cortisol (secreted by the adrenal cortex), is also significantly increased.  Both of these hormones increases the rate of protein conversion in to glucose. As cortisol levels increase with long-term stressors, DHEA (a hormone commonly suppressed in insulin resistance) also diminishes.

Extended stress robs the body of vital nutrients.  Diabetes, and hyperglycemia, conditions fueled by stress cause increased urination.  Stress also contributes to obesity (a factor associated with Syndrome X and Type-2 diabetes).  A stressful person often eats not because of hunger, but as a reprieve from unpleasant situations.  As the person eats more food (sugars in carbohydrates) the pancreas pumps out insulin to oppose the rise in blood sugar.  The insulin release from the pancreas may be too much, and blood glucose levels plummet to hypoglycemic lows. Stress is an initiator in an eating frenzy, and unstable blood sugar is the consequence.

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DIABETICS

  • Keep a regular daily (3-4 times a week) exercise routine that you will follow.  Performing this exercise routine regularly will help you recognize symptoms that are unusual.  Keep a journal on what you eat, how much you exercise, and how you feel.
  • Diet should be closely monitored.  The diet for each diabetic should be specialized to his/her needs, however, some commonalities exist: low sugar and refined carbohydrate intake, avoid acidic foods (cola, alcohol, artificial sweeteners), limit red meat intake, and avoid over eating.
  • Patients should be informed about signs of hypoglycemia.  Hypoglycemia occurs when meals are skipped or delayed, when patients over exercise, or when illness or emotional upset occurs.  Try eating smaller meals more often (5 times a day) and don’t fast.
  • Check your blood glucose levels regularly.  Monitoring helps to recognize patterns in blood glucose levels.  Monitoring regularly also helps to formulate meal choices and regulates lifestyle changes.
  • The consumption of alcohol is not advised because they can lower blood glucose levels causing flushing, headache, sweating, or dizziness.

DRUG MANAGEMENT

There is little doubt that conventional pharmaceutical agents play an important role in treating diabetes mellitus, type-2. Frequently, diet and supplementation alone can help to control glucose levels. However, if the disease has progressed to Syndrome X and insulin insensitivity is in latter stages, drug use is almost critical. The common prescription drugs used today include:

Sulfonylureas, Repaglinide – increase insulin secretion from beta cells.

Actos/Avandia – increase peripheral glucose utilization in muscle and adipose tissue. (CAUTION: Avandia may cause a new-onset or a worsening of diabetic macular edema)

Metformin – decreases hepatic glucose production; increases peripheral glucose utilization in muscle.

Acarbose – decreases carbohydrate absorption.

Insulin- decreases blood glucose concentration.

SUPPLEMENT PROTOCOL

  1. A potent MULTI-VITAMIN/MINERAL FORMULA geared toward diabetic patient.
  2. CHROMIUM
    Chromium is essential for glucose metabolism and assists in overall insulin resistance. Low levels may lead to insulin insensitivity and abnormal insulin usage. With BIOTIN’s help, chromium can increase the uptake of insulin in the cells, keep the pancreas working well, and decrease oxidative damage common in diabetics. Chromium is also necessary for normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium picolinate reduces insulin requirements in 71% of type-1 diabetics and 74% of type-2 diabetics. In one study, supplementation with 500 mg twice a day of chromium picolonate significantly lowered HbA1c level after 2-4 months. Dosage: A moderate dose of 50-100 mcg daily is high enough to correct deficiency but not sufficient to improve blood sugar control. Persons with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance should take 400-600 mcg of chromium daily. VANADYL SULFATE may reduce need for insulin at doses of 250 mcg per day.
  3. MAGNESIUM
    Magnesium supplementation improves all aspects of diabetes. Magnesium relieves neuropathic pain, is instrumental in glycolysis, helps insulin work more effectively, and aids in supporting the process of BP and arterial strength. Most diabetics show a marked 80-85% deficiency. Dosage: 300-600mg daily.
  4. ZINC
    Zinc increases excretion with anti-diabetic agents; aids in insulin synthesis; and limits oxidative damaged associated with diabetes. Zinc supplementation normalizes blood sugar impressively and protects beta cells. Dosage: 30mg daily along with 2 mg of COPPER.
  5. VITAMIN C (ESTER) with MIXED BIOFLAVONOIDS and VITAMIN E
    Vitamin C reduces glycolysation (lower sugar) of proteins, while decreasing free radicals and capillary rigidity. Dosage: 1,000-3,000 mg daily. Vitamins C & E help to get sugar out of the blood stream, keep the pancreas and the blood vessels healthy, and help prevent kidney damage, blindness and heart attacks. VITAMIN E normalizes retinal blood flow and improves renal function in type-1 diabetics without changing glycemic control. Vitamin E improves glucose tolerance AND insulin sensitivity, acts as an antioxidant, and inhibits platelet aggregation. Dosage: 200-800IU daily, but higher doses are safe up to 2,000 IU daily.
  6. B-COMPLEX VITAMINS
    Levels of B vitamins are frequently low in diabetics. These B vitamins may be essential in adding energy and rejuvenating cells.  NIACINAMIDE protects beta-cells from destruction. Dosage 1-3 grams daily. VITAMIN B-12 (Injection or oral) helps to relieve neuropathic pain. Dosage: 1,000 mcg daily. VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine) corrects a deficiency and may help decrease risk of developing retinopathy and neuropathy. Also inhibits glycosylation of proteins. Dosage: 50-100mg a day. FOLATE (folic acid) lowers homocysteine levels to prevent retinopathy and neuropathy. Dosage: 1mg daily. VITAMIN B2 (Riboflavin) often is at abnormal levels in diabetics. Dosage: 50-100mg daily. THIAMINE corrects possible deficiency and minimizes neuropathy. Dosage: 50-100mg daily. BIOTIN aids in metabolism of macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and fats), glucose utilization and is beneficial in diabetic neuropathy. Dosage: 8-16 mg daily. {The prescription drug Metformin may decrease vitamin B12, while increasing homocysteine levels.}
  7. L-CARNITINE
    There is clear evidence tat this amino acid improves blood glucose and HbA1c levels, increases insulin sensitivity and glucose storage, and optimizes fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Deficiencies appear allied to diabetic neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Carnitine also appears to reduce plasma lipoproteins (cholesterol) levels successfully in patients with type-2 diabetes. Carnitine (200mg daily), together with chromium (400-600 mcg daily), and moderate caloric restriction, typically results in impressive fat losses. Dosage: 200-1,000 mg daily.
  8. ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID (ALA)
    ALA plays a key role in our health, not only as an antioxidant, but as a cofactor in a number of vital enzymes responsible for metabolism of glucose, and fatty acids to cellular energy.  ALA increases the efficiency of glucose metabolism, improves insulin sensitivity, and prevents hyperglycemia in diabetics. Because many of the systemic complications of diabetes, such as polyneuropathy and cataract formation, appear to be secondary to free radical damage, alpha-lipoic acid has been proposed as a possible therapeutic agent in these conditions. Dosage: 200 mg 2 or 3 times a day.
  9. CINNAMON
    Cinnamon grows in abundance in many parts of the world, and is used as a spice. Recently, it has been demonstrated to control tyoe-2 diabetes.  All cinnamon groups have been shown to reduce serum glucose (18-29 percent), triglycerides (23-30 percent), LDL )7-27 percent), and total cholesterol (12-26 percent).  Dosage: 200 mg-6 grams daily.
  10. COENZYME Q10
    CoQ-10 is a potent anti-oxidative enzyme that enhances beta cell function (from the pancreas) and glycemic control. Some researchers credit CoQ-10 with being able to counter the oxidative stress (aging factors) imposed by diabetes. CoQ10 also helps diabetics adequately process carbohydrates depleted by long-term use of drugs that impair the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin. Diabetics are low in this enzyme. Dosage: 60-500mg daily depending on severity.
  11. PANCREATIC/DIGESTIVE ENZYMES/ACIDOPHILUS
    Enzymes improve gastrointestinal function and probiotics like acidophilus help to restore normal gut flora and improve carbohydrate balance. Psyllum fiber improves glycemic control. Dosage: 1-2 capsules before meals.
  12. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE
    Gymnema is a tropical plant of the milkweed family native to India. The active ingredient of gymnema is called gymnemic acid, which has been found to have the ability to fill receptor sites on the taste buds, thereby preventing the sweet taste of sugar molecules.  It also helps the pancreas produce insulin in NIDDM, helps balance sugar, and may help weight loss. In some cases gymnema may double the number of islet and beta cells. Dosage: 400mg a day, or as directed.
  13. BILBERRY
    Mounting evidence suggests that one anthocyanoside in blueberry, called myrtillin, can help to control blood sugar. Blueberries have also been associated with improved vision both at night and in very bright light. One theory to explain this is that the particular antioxidants in blueberries direct plenty of oxygen and nutrients. Bilberry has been shown to lower plasma glucose by 26%, and may lower trigylcerides by 39%. Dosage: 80-240 mg daily.
  14. OPC’s (OLIGOMERIC PROANTHOCYAMIDINS)
    OPC’s are classed with the broad group of naturally occurring antioxidant substances in plants known as polyphenols. In recent years OPC’s have become known by the public to occur in grape seeds and pine bark (pycnogenol). OPC’s are not only super antioxidants, but they may improve capillary resistance in diabetes. OPC’s should be used in caution with patients taking anticoagulant or anti-platelet therapy since they may prolong bleeding time. Dosage: As directed on package.
  15. PANAX GINSENG (Asian or American)
    This ancient Chinese herb enhances the release of insulin from the pancreas, increasing the number of insulin receptors. Ginseng may cause a 20% decrease in blood glucose in Type-2 patients by stimulating glucose utilization and/or insulin release from the pancreas. Taking the ginseng before a sugar dose leads to a significant reduction of glucose absorption, in both diabetics and non-diabetics, and enhanced cognitive performance. Dosage: Up to 3 grams before or during a meal.
  16. STEVIA
    The plant Stevia rebaudiana has been used as a tea for many years in the treatment of diabetes among Indians in the Amazon basin.  Stevia is widely used in Japan as an artificial sweetener (it can be safely used by diabetics). Stevia stimulates the release of insulin via a direct action on the pancreatic beta cells and normalizes the response to glucose, especially in type-2 diabetes.  Dosage: Use as a sugar supplement in drinks and foods.
  17. GAMMA LINOLENIC ACID (EVENING PRIMROSE OIL, BORAGE SEED OIL)
  18. Persons with diabetes cannot convert linoleic acid to GLA, and therefore must have supplemental GLA. It has been shown that up to 4 gm daily may reverse diabetic nerve damage
  19. BITTER MELON
    Bitter melon has widespread use in traditional medicine. In a recent clinical study, bitter melon was shown to significantly reduce both fasting and postprandial (blood-sugar levels after carbohydrate consumption) serum glucose levels in NIDDM patients. It works by inhibiting glucose absorption, and may help a diabetic liver function better. No known drug interactions are associated with it. Dosage: As directed on package.
  20. ESSIAC TEA
    This famous 4-herb combination tea is used extensively for cancer treatment, and according to physician Dr. Whitaker, is quite effective in lowering blood glucose. Dosage: As directed on package.
  21. L-ARGININE
    Recent studies have shown that long-term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and liver insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetes patients. Dosage: 1,000 mg 3 times a day.
  22. FENUGREEK (TRIGONELLA FOENUMGRAECUM)
    Fenugreek is one of the oldest medicinal plants.  Several studies show that this herb may reduce blood sugar in both type-1 & 2 diabetes. It may lower cholesterol by helping the liver and kidneys metabolize blood sugars more efficiently. Dosage: 500-1000mg 3 times a day.
  23. 5-HTP (5-HYDROXY-TRYPTOPHAN)
    5-HTP is an amino acid that increases serotonin levels and may be used for weight-loss support for diabetics. Dosage: 100-250mg a day.
  24. ALOE VERA JUICE
    When taken orally, Aloe vera juice can be useful in managing levels of blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Dosage: 1-2 ounces daily.
  25. GOJI JUICE
    Goji juice is rich in antioxidants and has been shown to decrease oxidative stress and protect red blood cells. It has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many uses including diabetes. Modern animal research has verified Goji’s blood sugar lowering effects and also suggests that its antioxidant properties protect against diabetes complications.  Dosage: As directed on bottle.
  26. GINKGO BILOBA
    This herb has an ability to improve circulation in the genital areas of men. Therefore, ginkgo may improve sexual performance. Ginkgo is known to prevent vascular damage, reduce the risk of neuropathy, and prevent retinopathy. Dosage: 80-240 mg daily.
  27. INOSITOL
    Inositol is a natural substance associated with the B-complex group, appears to be altered in diabetics. Supplementation with inositol has proved beneficial to diabetics affording them with lower risks of developing diabetic neuropathy.  Dosage: As directed on package.
  28. ASTRAGALUS
    Another Chinese herb that heals skin ulcers associated with diabetes and treats peripheral neuropathy. Dosage: As directed on package.
  29. GREEN FOODS
    All green foods (including spirulina, barley, blue-green algae, kamut, wheat grass, kale, spinach, etc) are highly nutritious foods and are alkaline in pH, thus affording better glucose control for the patient.
  30. MAITAKE FRACTION
    A compound found in the maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) that exhibits anti-diabetic activity in Japanese studies. Maitake enhances peripheral sensitivity to insulin for the control of blood sugar levels, as well as reducing high blood pressure. Medical mushrooms may also be helpful in decreasing the risk of Syndrome X. Dosage: As directed on package.
  31. CARNOSINE
    An amino acid peptide that has demonstrated in several studies to be a safe and effective antiglycerated agent (a reaction occurring between proteins and glucose that contributes to the complications arising from diabetes). Dosage: 1,000 mg daily.
  32. GREEN TEA
    Some randomized controlled trial were recorded measuring the effect of green tea consumption on insulin resistance and inflammation markers.  There was a positive correlation between the levels of polyphenol intake and insulin levels. There was little change over all with HbA1c levels, though.  Dosage: 3 cups a day, or 500 mg green tea polyphenols.
  33. PRICKLY PEAR FRUIT
    Used by Native American populations for thousands of years and was a well-known treatment for diabetes. The use of traditional foods like prickly pear pads and fruits can offer a safe, nutritional, and low-cost way of helping to control various glucose levels.
    NOTE: EXERCISE improves diabetes in all aspects. Exercise (even brisk walking every day) is known to increase insulin sensitivity, improve glucose tolerance, promote weight loss, and reduce triglyceride levels- all of which are particularly good for diabetics.

CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE or TYPE-2 DIABETES

The prevalence of obese and overweight children is increasing around the world. Obesity is one of the biggest risk factors for diabetes, increasing the risk by as much as 93 percent.

a young boy blowing on a dandelion

Children diagnosed with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes, an autoimmune condition thought to be caused by genetics, viruses, diet, or stress. These factors compromise the production of insulin from the pancreas to the extent that the child requires insulin medication for the rest of their life. Some of the most studied possible causes of type 1 diabetes are cow’s milk or soy milk reactions, and reactions to immunizations. Research has shown that cow’s milk can trigger insulin-dependent diabetes in children who are prone to the disease.

The New Zealand Medical journal (1996) reported a 60 percent increase in type 1 diabetes following a massive campaign to vaccinate babies six weeks of age or older with hepatitis B vaccine. Other data reports a causal relationship between various vaccines including pertussis (whopping cough), mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, and haemophilus influenzae.

DIET

A simple, logical approach to dietary adjustments, the weight control issue, and balancing protein with complex carbohydrates can make the danger of type 2 diabetes more remote. Studies prove that giving children one soft drink a day can increase their risk of getting type 2 diabetes by 60 percent. Most American kids get an extra 15-20 teaspoons of refined sugar per day from soft drinks alone. Begin a family exercise program, such as fun activities on weekends such a riding bikes or walks after work.

a young girl smiling at the dinner table

The best dietary advice includes drinking more water, not soda, flavored beverages, or too much fruit juice (high concentrated sugar). Eat whole grains and legume carbohydrates high in fiber such as squash, sweet potatoes, brown rice, yams, lentils, beans, buckwheat, flaxseed, and oat bran. Add chromium-rich foods such as rye bread, lean beef, and potatoes. Get green leafy vegetables into their daily menu. Spices such as garlic, onions, cloves, cinnamon help to regulate blood sugar. Eat foods high in quality protein and omega-3 fatty acids, including salmon, mackerel, sardines, herring, flaxseed oil, and walnuts.

The glycemic index classifies carbohydrates according to how fast they are absorbed by the body, and how they increase blood sugar.

GLYCEMIC INDEX

Basically, all calories are not created equal and neither are all carbohydrates. The Glycemic Index (GI) was coined to describe the blood sugar response following the ingestion of a standard amount of carbohydrates as measured against a standard test carbohydrate food. The higher the GI, the more insulin is released from the body’s pancreas, and thus a higher risk for weight gain and diabetes and its complications. These higher insulin levels result in weight gain by preferentially directing the body to store glucose (sugar) as fat and inhibit fat breakdown for energy. Thus, the type of carbohydrate eaten is more important than the percent of carbohydrates eaten.

HIGH GI FOODS: Table sugar, carbonated soft drinks (including diet drinks), bagels, bananas, white flour, white bread, potatoes (French fries, baked, skinned), coffee and tea, sugary cereals, cakes, crackers, Gatorade, corn chips, cantaloupe, pineapples, tacos, shortbread, ice cream, popcorn, pretzels, hot chocolate, donuts, pancakes, raisins.

LOW GI FOODS: Peaches and pears, plums, most beans, peanuts, soybeans, apples, barley, low-fat milk, yogurt, apricots, cherries, grapefruits, tomato juice, carrots, peas, lentils, strawberries, whole rye kernels, shredded wheat, oatmeal.

SUPPLEMENT PROTOCOL

  1. MULTIVITAMIN/MINERAL FORMULA
  2. VITAMIN E is essential in type-2 diabetes and is shown to improve glucose tolerance. Dosage: 200 IU daily.
  3. CHROMIUM plays a major role in the sensitivity of cells to insulin. Dosage: 200mcg daily.
  4. VITAMIN C helps decrease free radical exposure. Dosage: 500mg daily.
  5. NIACIN is an essential component in “glucose tolerant factor” and hypoglycemic episodes.
  6. BETA CAROTENE (mixed carotenes). Dosage: 15mg daily.
  7. ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID enhances glucose transport and utilization.
  8. EVENING PRIMROSE OIL contains quality unsaturated fats that help manage diseases. Dosage: 500mg 2-3 times a day.
  9. BIOTIN is shown to enhance insulin sensitivity and to significantly lower fasting blood sugar.
  10. MAGNESIUM. Low magnesium correlates to many chronic diseases. Dosage: 200-400 mg daily.
  11. ZINC is involved in virtually all aspects of insulin metabolism and protects beta cell destruction.
  12. BITTER MELON, GINSENG and GYMNEMA are useful botanicals in type-2 diabetes.
  13. FIBER plays a protective role in type-2 diabetes.

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